Saturday, April 28, 2007

Wild Hogs

Caron has been working really hard this week, starting at about 07:00 and only getting home at between 21:00 and 22:00 so she spent most of yesterdays public holiday catching up on her sleep. While they were at work on the wednesday evening some other people at the company were having a little bit of a party in the company bar and things got a little out of hand. One of the out of control, about to be ex-employee, participants decided that it would be a great idea to drive his bike into the bar. No easy feat since the bar is on the 3rd floor but no problem, drive the bike through the foyer and into the lift and then out and into the bar. I think that if they had stopped at this point he probably would still be employed but the moron decided to do donuts in the bar but since donuts are impossible due to space constraints he did the next best thing and just burnt some rubber creating so much smoke that the entire buildings fire alarm went of as well as wearing away a portion of the tiled floor. So much for shy retiring computer programmers. Personally, I don't think he should be fired, it was probably the most fun experienced at the company for years and everyone is talking about it speculating as to the outcome. Knowing that they were probably going to get into trouble they had the foresight to break the cctv camera in the bar so that nobody would have a record of the events but they unfortunately forgot about the cctv cameras in the foyer. So Sad.

By absolute coincidence we had planned to see Wild Hogs which, if you get a chance to see it, do so. I'm sure you'll have a good laugh and as you will see - boys will be boys even when they don't intend to be and if you're male and over about 35, you'll definitely identify with one or more of the characters. Caron wants me to write more about the movie but I don't want to spoil it for you if you do happen to go and see it.

Afer the movie we were going to go out for supper to Wang Thai on Sandton Square but they wouldn't let us in. The reason - I wasn't suitably attired to be allowed to dine in their establishment. The problem - I was wearing tailored shorts like the ones that are acceptable at golf clubs. I was so pissed off especially since there is no notice of a dress code anywhere, they just inform you when it is too late for you to change. I must admit that I feel that a dress code is just a wee bit old fashioned.

We ended up at Smith & Wolenskies (I can't remember how to spell it) and recounted our tale to the manager when he came around to see if we were enjoying our meal. His response was that he was going to be going to Wang Thai but not anymore so either he is a particularly astute manager or he genuinely isn't going to go. Either way, it made me feel better.

S&W 10, Wank Thai 0

Wednesday, April 25, 2007

Just another weekend ...

Saturday morning started out as it usually seems to with me chasing the rear wheel of the bicycle in front of me. The riders in front may change but the chasing doesn't. Did about 90km's at just over 25km/hr which wasn't too bad, even felt like I was just cruising on a few occasions. We rode past the Lion park whose owner had been snacked by the resident lions the day before. Apparently they want to put the lion down for doing what comes very naturally, I think that is a bit tough from the lions point of view. Can you imagine a hunter killing a buck and then himself being terminated because he "might get into the habit" of killing buck. No I didn't think so! There is a reason why you are asked to remain in your car because even a lion who hasn't snacked on humans would not take long to figure out that we are edible. I think we just don't like thinking about how puny we actually are so we slaughter anything that reminds us of our frailty.

Saturday afternoon we dressed up and went to Johan and Lorraines wedding in Pretoria - somewhere beyond the Jukskei and our first wedding for many years. I was pleasantly surprised to find that my one and only suit bought about 10 years ago for my own wedding still fitted me. My father has a theory, for which there is ample proof, that suits mysteriously shrink if left in the closet. It was a interesting wedding because the bride is from an English family while the groom is from an Afrikaans family so it was a real mixture of cultures. I suggested that perhaps they should speak a neutral language at home like French but Johan was somewhat less keen than Lorraine, possibly because Lorraine speaks fluent French as well as Afrikaans and obviously English.

Apparently there was some concern when they were working out the seating arrangements because the only people we knew there were the bride, the groom, the best man and his spouse and they were all at the "main" table so we definitely couldn't sit with them so we were left to fend for ourselves which was quite novel and we ended up sitting between two odd couples. On our left was a 30 year old guy who was clearly worried about being left on the shelf and on his left was a younger girl who seemed quite keen on him not that it was reciprocated. On our right was a couple, sort of. Although they had all the rings they behaved very uncouplish and clearly didn't know each other very well from the topics of conversation that we were eavesdropping in on. Actually the whole table made both of us feel very old and parentish - a very odd place for us to be.

We left quite early since we had quite a long drive to get home and we were both quite tired. About 2/3 of the way home I relinquished the drivers seat to caron because I was starting to get too sleepy. Caron had forgotten her glasses at home so her driving was as erratic as mine so while I was dog tired in the drivers seat, as soon as I got into the passengers seat I was wide awake.

On Sunday morning we joined Kim for her birthday at Moyo's restaurant at Zoo Lake. Moyo's is a very African Chic chain of restaurants with a very good reputation. Besides Laurel and obviously us, Vic & Elize as well as Sally-Anne and Brad and their respective assorted children joined us. I kept pretty quiet, intimidated by the verbal firepower on display, and just listened to everyone else's conversation. If you ever have a chance to go to Moyo's at Zoo Lake, just going to see the decor is worth it.

We spent the afternoon at Emmarentia dam, if one can call it a dam since it is more reminiscent of a large puddle, looking at kayaks. Caron has been keen on getting a K2 kayak for a couple of years so the time has come to look seriously into getting one.

Monday, April 23, 2007

Homeward Bound

Thursday started the great trek back up to johannesburg and back into the frenetic Johannesburg life. I went for my last dive on thursday morning and much against my intuition and experience was convinced by the instructors to do a "wreck" dive on the produce which is at about 30m. Having done several deep wreck dives before my experience is that there is little to see and you get precious little time within which to see it, unfortunately over time this memory fades and one finds oneself wondering if it really was that bad. Better try it again, maybe something has changed and it will be a great dive - hope springs eternal. Nope, it wasn't, same experience as before. Don't do wreck dives - they're awful and the only positive to the dive was seeing four large brindle bass which apparently can grow up to 2.7m and 600kg. I don't think that these were that large but at a guess I would say about 1,5m and probably 100 to 150kg which is still pretty massive and uncharacteristically these ones were particularly shy and moved off quite quickly so I didn't get a chance at a good photo.

Met Caron back at the shack pictured below, packed up and then we were on our merry way.

Caron and I have a perennial holiday game called "Wouldn't it be great to have a house here" which we don't seem to be able to give up. Fortunately, the games mostly ends in nothing but it is quite enjoyable speculating. This holiday we saw two properties, neither of which we are going to buy although they both had really beautiful views as shown below:

Farm in the Kamberg area

Farm in the Dargyle valley

On friday at about 14:30 we picked up Megan and Alistair from Selma and Bruno's (Carls parents) in Howick for the long trip home. Megan and Alistair are normally quite a quiet pair of kids but for some reason today was their coming out day. It was like having two random word generators in the back seat, no reason or logic or even context, just words and lots of them. We had the inevitable altercation which we managed to defuse before too many tears were shed and as the sun set over the FreeState the noise from my back seat diminished until we were driving through the darkness in total silence. Bliss! Delivered two sleeping kids to their parents and retreated homeward after a little bit to eat. We dutifully delivered a "must read" book from Bruno to Carl which is very funny because it goes on top of the two or three books that I have recommended as well as a few more from other people. The look of despair on Carls face knowing that his father had gone out especially to buy the book for him and that it was going to take a long time to read and that there really was no option. Amusing for me, not so funny for Carl.

Wednesday, April 18, 2007

Selborne, Place of Sloth!

Ughhh! It is almost time to depart and return to the rat race. We have been staying at Kirsten and Carl's place on Selborne Golf estate just outside Pennington on the Natal south coast for a few days and to say that it has been idyllic would be an understatement. The view if I turn my head looks like this

My day consists of waking up at the leisurely hour of 6:00, making coffee for Caron and heading out to Sea Fever for the 08:00 dive and just to make sure that I'm not doing too much, I only dive once a day. I arrive back at about 11:00 just in time to wake Caron from her mid-morning nap, sort out the photos from the dive before a light lunch. We both laze about reading and catching up on work (you just can't get away from it) until about 15:00 when we sloth down to the spa for our massage. Returning we continue reading and make supper and go to bed at about 21:30 ready for yet another day. It's a tough life here in africa hey!

I think the most irritating feature of being down here is that I (and caron) are having to put up with using GPRS to connect to the internet. It has become such a part of our lives that we just can't do without it and not only is it dog slow but it is very intermittent. Very, very annoying and I'm busy looking at using GPRS for a systems' communications so this experience has not filled me with confidence should I say. Sometimes I have to send the same email three of four times before the damn thing will depart.

I've really been enjoying the diving, calm seas, little or no current or surge. So, so visibility but definitely good enough to work with. As can be seen from the photographs below, I still haven't quite moved on from shooting relatively stationary underwater life. Photographing constantly moving fish is nigh impossible and digital doesn't help - you're just framed the friggin' thing beautifully, squeezed the shutter. The flash goes off but when you preview it, the frame is empty or there is another fish staring at you half in and half out the frame. Very frustrating. It makes taking photographs on the land feel decidedly easy.

Two Nudibranchs caught in the act, well almost!

A Feather Duster Worm or Giant Fanworm. That all worms looked this good.

A Raggy Scorpionfish, how is that for pisceaen attitude!

A Honeycomb Moray eel showing off his fine set of dentures.

You can just see that my camera has developed a fault and there an entire row of ccd's that have gone on the blink so every photograph now has a nice line through it. I will have to find out if I can get it fixed or whether I will have to interpolate across the remaining pixels to 'fix' it.

I tried to take a picture of a jelly fish about a metre under the surface which is a particular challenge because above about 3 or 4m below the surface one tends to become positively buoyant which, while normally a good thing, for diving is definitely undesirable. Also at about a metre, the action of the waves is quite pronounced so trying to keep the same distance from the jelly fish, at the same depth and getting the camera to focus on a translucent object was only marginally successful. It is a fortunate thing indeed that one only appreciates what went into taking the beautiful photographs in books and documentaries after one has tried to take them oneself. If one knew how difficult it actually was, one wouldn't even bother trying.

I am feeling very pleased with myself because I am down to a 2kg weight belt and using a 10l steel tank and have not had any problems with buoyancy even at 1m under the surface and I haven't had to come up before the whole group or those left in the group all come up. Eventually I want to get to a stage where I don't need to ever put air into my bc in order to adjust my buoyancy, I should just be able to control it by breathing. Still a way to go but I think I'm getting there.

I was involved in a minor underwater panic, minor for me that is, pretty major for the person involved. It was right at the end of the dive at about 15m and I had 70bar left and all but one other person and the dive master had already completed their dives. The other diver suddenly swam like a man possessed towards the dive master and grabbed his spare octo which would only happen if he had been careless and not kept a sharp eye on his pressure gauge. The rule is, once you hit 50bar you head for the surface to avoid little incidents like this. Anyway everyone ascended calmly to the surface before the dive master came back down to meet me at the 5m deco stop. Amazing how fast one can swim when survival mode kicks in!

Tuesday, April 17, 2007

Happy atheists, one and all

I've finally worked it out ... we are all atheists. There might be some exceptions of which I can't think, but basically pretty much everyone is an atheist for the following reasons. First of all, I am assuming that the definition of an atheist is one who does not believe in the existence of God/s. So when someone says that they believe in one God or say, a group of Gods, they are effectively saying that they don't believe in any God/s not in that group so it would be fair to say that they are atheistic towards the God/s not in the acceptable group.


I therefore propose the following definitions:
Atheist - One who does not believe in the existence of any Gods
atheist - One who does not believe in the existence of some God/s
Theist - One who believes in the existence of all Gods

Of course, my tongue is in my cheek!

Sunday, April 15, 2007

Easter weekend continued ...

After such an energetic start to the weekend I am happy to say that we took the Saturday and the Sunday particularly easy, in fact I can't really remember actually doing anything at all so it must have been good but by monday I was needing to do something so when Glynne phoned to see if I wanted a ride, I was keen. Jason wasn't able to join us because he was working or so he said but I'll just have to believe him. Without him I thought the ride would be a nice tempo but I hadn't reckoned on two of Glynnes' cycling partners, one of whom, Darryl is another Jason. Not respite for the wicked! For some reason I kept on wanting to call Darryl George, there is something distinctly George like about him although I don't know anyone that even looks vaguely like him. We rode out to the Cradle of Mankind and then turned around and got caught in a nice highveld storm complete with lightning and driving rain, no hail thank goodness. It is usually more enjoyable to appreciate the storm from inside a building but one doesn't get to really appreciate the force of the drops nor the icy cold that leaves one's fingers and face numb from cold. By the time I got home the ride was over 100km and I was buggered and spent the entire rest of the day recovering. I think we averaged 26-27km/hr over what is actually quite hilly terrain. Having to do this every day would really make my desk job look rather attractive. After feeling a little bloated from too much eating and not enough activity, the ride took more than adequate care of evening up the equation.

Anger Management

April, as I am sure I have mentioned previously, is South Africa's public holiday madness month. Pretty cool if you are an employee but not so cool if you are an employer. Being both leaves me undecided as to what to think.

Easter normally also means that there are literally millions of people undertaking long journeys so the death toll is normally horrendous. Combining poor driving, unroadworthy vehicles and long hours and the aggressive temperaments leads inexorably to a very high death toll. About half of which are pedestrians and no, this is not from drivers going out of their way to hit them, the pedestrians conveniently offer themselves as sacrifices to the god of who knows what by walking in the road. Any road will do but highways where nobody is doing less than 120km/hr are particular favourites. A couple of years ago Caron and I decided that going away over the easter weekend was more frustrating and generally not conducive to happiness and wellbeing so we would remain at home which is where we found ourselves this year.

Friday morning we decided that it was time to sort out our flowerbox problem. Just next to our front door is a knee high flowerbox which supports a pillar which supports the roof as can be seen from the picture. Two problems actually, firstly the water collecting in the flowerbox means that we always have a damp problem at this particular spot on the inside of the house. Secondly, water tends to overflow the channeling under this particular valley and then runs down the inside of the ceiling and collects there along with leaves and soil. This over time has led to the ceiling and the wooden beam rotting and I have to replace it before it gets too far so we have decided to do away with the flower box which we don't like in any case and replace the beam as well as the ceilings and, of course, the wooden post. There must be some kind of law that if you start some kind of home repair it inevitably ends up as a substantially larger job (read more expensive) that it started out. No wonder builders don't like quoting on home repairs.

We were just about to start when Laurel, Kim, Samuel and Hannah as well as the ever present Sage arrived for some morning coffee and then left again leaving Hannah behind on condition that she help Caron in the garden. I think that what she actually wants is to be able to have some peace and quiet from Samuel and especially from Sage. While I started making a new frame for Laurel to replace the warped one that she had used, Caron and Hannah started demolishing the flowerbox and distributing the 1.5 to 2.0 cubic metres of soil over the garden. Within a short space of time the rest of the family were back eager to release some anger and frustration at our hapless flowerbox. It didn't stand a chance although it took almost the entire morning to finally empty it. Most of the earth was so hard packed that we had to use a pick on it before trying to shovel it out. There is definitely something therapeutic about swinging a sledge hammer and breaking a wall down. Of course, doing it all day, every day would soon take the novelty out of it but doing it every few years was quite enjoyable. I had to teach everyone how to use a pick properly. One would think that this would be pretty obvious but it clearly wasn't and I was amazed that just about nobody had ever even picked up a pick let alone used it. By lunch time it was pretty much done and we had a cold lunch under the shade of the paper bark thorn tree in the back yard. Food always seems to taste just that much better if you have worked for it. After lunch I quickly finished off the new frame and Kim and Laurel helped me stretch the painting onto the new frame which wasn't as easy as it sounded. It didn't actually turn out too badly and Laurel left with the painting to deliver to the new owners. Hope they are happy and that it sits flat on the wall at least for the first couple of weeks, after that, well ...

Monday, April 09, 2007

Jesus' Father Controversy


While reading "The God Delusion" by Dawkins he points to the incompatability of the genealogies of Jesus as described in Matthew and Luke as evidence of the fallability of scripture. I couldn't believe that I had absolutely missed this but sure enough they are completely different. This led to an investigation as to why they could possibly be different and there are a few theories floating around which I wanted to follow up on and this became something of a quest which I couldn't let go of even though it was so incredibly boring and to a large extent - pointless. Hopefully, this will be the end of it. I have blogged quoted text from 7 people who have something to say about the topic and if you really have absolutely nothing to do, go ahead and read them. I put them up only as a way of somehow bringing some sort of closure to this since I am now heartily sick of it.

My conclusion (as is that of author #5) is that as things stand the two accounts cannot be reconciled. It would require new evidence of some sort in order to throw some new light on it.

Saturday, April 07, 2007

Mink & Manure

I met Tim and Michael at 06:30 for a gentle 60km ride out to the botanical gardens and back. In the absense of Jason, I felt sure that for a change I really would be able to have a relatively easy ride. Neither Tim nor Michael are averse to a pleasant ride but it was not to be. About 30 minutes into the ride my mobile phone kept notifying me that there was something wrong with the systems at work which meant I had to pull over while Michael and Tim went on ahead. It only took close to 5 minutes to get hold of someone else to resolve the issue but by then they were well out of site and a really hard chase over about 10km (top of witkoppen to intersection of botanical gardens turnoff on hendrik potgieter) to catch them. Once I caught them Michael decided that it was time to play silly buggers with me and would accelerate every time he could see my shadow closing in on his rear wheel. The issue at work kept on pestering me with SMS's and phone calls so I kept on having to catch up. By the time we got to Judges avenue Michael had the beating of me, only just but he did. Michael and I put just short of 4 minutes on Tim on the judges hill although I have a stong suspicion that he was just taking it really easy.
Caron and I went off to the BMW (previously SAPPI) horse trial at Inanda Country Base. Can't really understand it myself but Caron seemed to enjoy it. We went and sat on a grandstand near the water jump which consisted of 3 big steps of about a meter each, the last one into the water, and watched the field go by. Caron assures me that the horses love the riding but judging from the hesitation of some of the field at the top of the steps, I'm not so sure. We almost saw one rider go over the top but they managed to cling on, just. There was another jump right in front of the stands which had the horses jumping over a corner of really big logs which looked really awkward. Unseen to everyone a camera man had strayed into the path that the horses take after landing and the next horse through just about flattened the camera man. He had eyes like saucers after the horse had kindly gone around him almost leaving the rider behind.
Met up with Jason whose family had a picnic spot booked next to the jumping arena so we were able to watch the jumping from the picnic with the chilled wine close at hand. Talk about luxury. Cathy introduced Caron and I to her cousin Bronwyn (I think) and then displayed a competitiveness of spirit that I really didn't expect from her. It wasn't ugly competitive but good competitive and I'm sure that given half a chance she would be back on a horse. I also met Jason's training partner who has fallen by the wayside of late and I made a wisecrack about "lately known as slacker" which he didn't see the funny side of at all. Maybe I should have been more diplomatic - too late now I guess.
Horse riding, it seems to me, is the domain of the wealthy who like to be seen to be mucking about in the brown stuff like mere mortals and like fast cars, it seems to attract an inordinate number of the 'beautiful people'. The whiff of arrogance is barely below the surface, just my observations, I'm sure they are all really nice people.

Thursday, April 05, 2007

Genealogy Quote #7

A record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ the son of David, the son of Abraham:

1:1 The opening verse of Matthew’s Gospel introduces its main character and describes his identity in very Jewish terms. The first phrase, “a record of the genealogy” (biblos geneseōs), would more literally be translated “a book of the genesis” (or origin). This phrase has therefore been taken to refer to the entire Gospel or to all of 1:1–4:16, but genesis is not a natural description of the contents of the whole book or of the events of Jesus’ adult life. The NIV understandably limits this heading to the genealogy that follows, but genesis reappears in 1:18 with reference to Jesus’ conception. In the LXX comparable phrases regularly refer both to genealogies and to the narrative material that follows them, but they do not generally refer to entire biblical books (see Gen 5:1a as the introduction to 5:1–9:29). The best interpretation of the opening words of Matthew thus views them as a heading for all of chaps. 1–2. They therefore carry the sense of an account of the origin.

Key Matthean titles for Jesus also appear here in the opening verse. “Christ” is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Meshiach (Messiah), meaning Anointed One. There was a great diversity of Jewish messianic expectation in the first century and previous eras, but one common thread involved liberation of Israel from its enemies.2 “Son of David” points to the Messiah’s necessary lineage and royal role (see 2 Sam 7:11b–16). The classic intertestamental illustration of the messianic Son of David appears in Pss Sol 17:21–18:7—a righteous warrior-king who establishes God’s rule in Israel.3 “Son of Abraham” traces Jesus’ lineage back to the founding father of the nation of Israel, thus ensuring his Jewish pedigree from the earliest stage of his people’s history. But echoes are probably also to be heard here of God’s promises to Abraham that his offspring would bless all the peoples of the earth (Gen 12:1–3). “Son of Abraham” also carried messianic overtones as well in at least some intertestamental Jewish circles (e.g., T. Levi 8:15).

Already in this title verse, key themes of chaps. 1–2 are presented in a nutshell. Matthew’s names for Jesus present him as the fulfillment of the hopes and prophecies of Israel but also as one who will extend God’s blessings to Gentiles. His birth marks a new epoch in human history.

2. Genealogy (1:2–17)

The first main portion of the account of Jesus’ origin presents his genealogy in order to validate Matthew’s claims that Jesus is the son of Abraham and of David. The genealogy divides into three sections, as v. 17 makes clear. The times of Abraham, of David, and of the Babylonian exile mark the beginnings of these three periods. The genealogy culminates in the arrival of the Christ (vv. 16–17). Thus all three titles of v. 1 reappear as central elements in the genealogy. The Babylonian exile appears centrally as well, perhaps because Jesus is seen as the climax of the restoration of the nation of Israel from exile.

David, however, is the central figure throughout the genealogy. When one adds up the numerical values of the Hebrew consonants in his name (DVD), one arrives at the number fourteen (4+6+4). This gematria, as ancient Hebrew numerical equivalents to words are termed, probably accounts for the centrality of the number fourteen in Matthew’s genealogy. Each of the three sections contains fourteen generations (v. 17), and David’s name itself is the fourteenth entry. The actual number of generations in the three parts to the genealogy are thirteen, fourteen, and thirteen, respectively; but ancient counting often alternated between inclusive and exclusive reckoning. Such variation was thus well within standard literary convention of the day (for a good rabbinic parallel, see m. ˓Abot 5:1–6). When one compares the genealogy with Luke’s account (Luke 3:23–37) and with various Old Testament narratives, it is clear that Matthew has omitted several names to achieve this literary symmetry. But the verb consistently translated in the NIV “was the father of” (more literally begat) could also mean was the ancestor of. Other differences from Luke are more difficult to explain. Two major proposals concern the divergence of names in the two genealogies: (1) Luke presents Mary’s genealogy, while Matthew relates Joseph’s; (2) Luke has Jesus’ actual human ancestry through Joseph, while Matthew gives his legal ancestry by which he was the legitimate successor to the throne of David. Knowing which of these solutions is more likely probably is impossible unless new evidence turns up.4

2Abraham was the father of Isaac,

Isaac the father of Jacob,

Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers,

3Judah the father of Perez and Zerah,

whose mother was Tamar,

Perez the father of Hezron,

Hezron the father of Ram,

4Ram the father of Amminadab,

Amminadab the father of Nahshon,

Nahshon the father of Salmon,

5Salmon the father of Boaz,

whose mother was Rahab,

Boaz the father of Obed,

whose mother was Ruth,

Obed the father of Jesse,

6and Jesse the father of King David.

David was the father of Solomon,

whose mother had been Uriah’s wife,

7Solomon the father of Rehoboam,

Rehoboam the father of Abijah,

Abijah the father of Asa,

8Asa the father of Jehoshaphat,

Jehoshaphat the father of Jehoram,

Jehoram the father of Uzziah,

9Uzziah the father of Jotham,

Jotham the father of Ahaz,

Ahaz the father of Hezekiah,

10Hezekiah the father of Manasseh,

Manasseh the father of Amon,

Amon the father of Josiah,

11and Josiah the father of Jeconiah and his brothers at the time of the exile to Babylon.

12After the exile to Babylon:

Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel,

Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel,

13Zerubbabel the father of Abiud,

Abiud the father of Eliakim,

Eliakim the father of Azor,

14Azor the father of Zadok,

Zadok the father of Akim,

Akim the father of Eliud,

15Eliud the father of Eleazar,

Eleazar the father of Matthan,

Matthan the father of Jacob,

16and Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary,

of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.

17Thus there were fourteen generations in all from Abraham to David, fourteen from David to the exile to Babylon, and fourteen from the exile to the Christ.

1:2–17 Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Judah figure prominently in Gen 12–50. The other male names in vv. 2–6a correspond to 1 Chr 2:3–15. Solomon through Josiah (vv. 6b–11) all appear in 1 Chr 3:10–14 (recalling that Azariah is the same individual as Uzziah—cf., e.g., 2 Kgs 15:1–2 with 2 Chr 26:3—and that there are omissions in Matthew’s list). In vv. 12–16 Jeconiah is a variant form of Jehoiachin, who with Shealtiel and Zerubbabel appear in 1 Chr 3:17–19. But there Zerubbabel is a nephew of Shealtiel, which may suggest that the latter died childless and that the line of succession passed to his brother’s family. In Ezra 3:2, Zerubbabel is legally considered a son of Shealtiel. The rest of the names from Abiud to Jacob are unparalleled, but ancient Jews tried scrupulously to preserve their genealogies; so it is not implausible that Matthew had access to sources that have since been lost.

Deviations from the otherwise repetitive pattern of “X the father of Y” throughout these verses begin with the addition of “and his brothers” to the reference to Judah in v. 2. Obviously, it was natural to speak of all twelve of the sons of Jacob as founding fathers of the tribes of Israel. In v. 3 Zerah appears along with his twin brother Perez, a natural pairing (Gen 38:27–30). In v. 11 Jeconiah also appears with “his brothers,” again a reference to the nation of Israel as a whole at the time of its deportation. Otherwise the most notable break in pattern in Matthew’s genealogy involves the introduction of five women, both unnecessary and unusual in Jewish genealogies. These include Tamar (v. 3; cf. Gen 38), Rahab5 (v. 5; cf. Josh 2), Ruth (v. 5; cf. Ruth 3), Bathsheba (v. 6; cf. 2 Sam 11)— referred to only as “Uriah’s wife,” perhaps to remind the reader of David’s adulterous and murderous behavior—and Mary (v. 16).

Why are the first four of these women included? Suggestions have included viewing them as examples of sinners Jesus came to save, representative Gentiles to whom the Christian mission would be extended, or women who had illicit marriages and/or illegitimate children. The only factor that clearly applies to all four is that suspicions of illegitimacy surrounded their sexual activity and childbearing.6 This suspicion of illegitimacy fits perfectly with that which surrounded Mary, which Matthew immediately takes pains to refute (vv. 18–25). In fact, the grammar of v. 16 makes clear that Joseph was not the human father of Jesus because the pronoun “whom” is feminine and therefore can refer only to Mary as a human parent of the Christ child.

Within the Gospels, Jewish polemic hinted (John 8:48) and in the early centuries of the Christian era explicitly charged that Jesus was an illegitimate child. Matthew here strenuously denies the charge, but he also points out that key members of the messianic genealogy were haunted by similar suspicions (justified in at least the two cases of Tamar and Bathsheba and probably unjustified in the case of Ruth). Such suspicions, nevertheless, did not impugn the spiritual character of the individuals involved. In fact, Jesus comes to save precisely such people. Already here in the genealogy, Jesus is presented as the one who will ignore human labels of legitimacy and illegitimacy to offer his gospel of salvation to all, including the most despised and outcast of society. A question for the church to ask itself in any age is how well it is visibly representing this commitment to reach out to the oppressed and marginalized of society with the good news of salvation in Christ.7

At the same time, Matthew inherently honors the five women of his genealogy simply by his inclusion of them. So it is not enough merely to minister to the oppressed; we must find ways of exalting them and affirming their immense value in God’s eyes.

Source : Quinton Howitt

Genealogy Quote #6

3:23 Unlike Matthew, who placed his genealogy at the very beginning of his Gospel (1:1–17), Luke placed his genealogy between the accounts of Jesus’ baptism and temptation. There is OT precedent for this in Moses’ genealogy (Exod 6:14–25), which is not recorded at the beginning of his life but just before he started his ministry.32

The genealogy contains seventy-seven ancestors. 33 The exact arrangement of generations, in contrast to Matt 1:1–17, is uncertain. The intended pattern may be: Jesus to exile (3 x 7 generations); exile to David (3 x 7 generations); David to Abraham (2 x 7 generations); Abraham to Adam, son of God (3 x 7 generations). 34

With this genealogy of Jesus we encounter a classic problem involving the differences between the Matthean and Lukan genealogies. There are several minor differences in form 35 and in content. For example, Matthew’s genealogy stopped at Abraham, whereas Luke’s went back to “Adam, the Son of God”; Matthew added occasional descriptions (cf. 1:3, 5–6, 11–12, 16–17); Luke listed sixty names not found in Matthew. 36

The key issue, however, involves the differences in names between David and Jesus in the two genealogies. Thirty-eight names are different, and most important is the difference in the name of the alleged grandfather of Jesus. According to Matt 1:16 it was Jacob, but according to Luke 3:23 it was Heli. Numerous attempts have been made to explain this. Most scholars think that at present the two lists resist any and all attempts at harmonization. 37 Others seeking to harmonize the two accounts have offered various explanations. 38

The existence of such extensive genealogies in Jesus’ day is well established. The rabbi Hillel was able to trace his genealogy back to David, and Josephus (Life 1.3) also gave his own extensive genealogy. Yet at the present time with the material available, no truly satisfying solution has been brought forward to resolve this difficulty.39

Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old. If Jesus was born during the reign of Herod (1:5; Matt 2:1–19) who died in 4 B.C., and if Jesus was born ca. 6 B.C. and began his ministry ca. 28 (see comments on 3:1), Jesus would indeed have been in his early thirties. There does not seem to be here any reference or allusion to David’s age when he began his reign (“thirty years old,” 2 Sam 5:4), and there is even less likely an allusion to Gen 41:46 or Num 4:3. Luke may simply not have been able to be more specific about Jesus’ age.

He began his ministry. Compare Luke 23:5; Acts 1:22; 10:37. Jesus’ ministry began with his anointing by the Spirit.

So it was thought. This assumes that the reader has read Luke 1–2 and knows of the virginal conception. Luke 3:23 was therefore written after Luke 1–2. The best translation seems to be, “Jesus was the son (supposedly) of Joseph, the son of Heli, ” although “Jesus was the son (supposedly of Joseph), of Heli” is possible.

3:24 Matthat. This is the Matthan of Matt 1:15. A major agreement in both genealogies is that Matthat/Matthan was the great-grandfather of Jesus.

3:27 Rhesa. No available records indicate that Zerubbabel had a son by this name.

Neri. Although Matt 1:12 and 1 Chr 3:17–19 name Jeconiah as Zerubbabel’s grandfather, Jer 22:30 may suggest that Jeconiah was childless and that he adopted Neri as son and heir.

3:28–31 The names (up to David) are all different from Matt 1:7–12.

3:32–34 The names in these verses are the same as in Matt 1:2–6 except for Admin [or Ram] and Arni [or Hezron]. The textual variants in Codex Beza, the Itala, and various church fathers probably are due to an attempt to harmonize the Lukan list with that of Matthew.

3:38 The son of Adam. Clearly Luke’s universalistic perspective must be seen here. Jesus is the fulfillment not just of Jewish hopes but of the hopes of all people, both Jew and Gentile. For out of Adam the whole human family has come (cf. Acts 17:26), and Jesus is the son of Adam. Luke (like Paul in Rom 5:12–21; 1 Cor 15:22, 45–49) obviously thought of Adam as a historical person.

The son of God. For a parallel to this, see Philo, On the Virtues , 204–5. There is a sense in which Adam was a type of Jesus in that he did not have a human father, for the one who gave him life was God himself. Similarly God through his Spirit was the creative power who gave life to his Son, Jesus.

Source : Quinton Howitt

Genealogy Quote #5

At this point there comes, rather surprisingly to the modern reader, a genealogy of Jesus. Ancient writers did not have the device of footnotes, which a modern writer might have utilised at this point. One might have expected a genealogy to have been included in the birth story, but if the first draft of the Gospel began at 3:1, as is suggested by advocates of the Proto-Luke hypothesis, then the inclusion of the genealogy at this point finds a suitable explanation: it occurs after the first mention of the name of Jesus (Streeter, 209). Whether this be the case or not, Luke allowed it to stand here in the final edition of the Gospel, and hence it may have a theological purpose at this point.

1. Various scholars have held that the presence of a genealogy of Jesus in the records is inconsistent with the tradition of the virgin birth; it is then argued that the genealogy represents an earlier stage in Christian thought before the development of the idea of the virgin birth (J. Weiss, 435; M. P. Johnson*, 238, holds that in Lk. 3-24 the tradition of the virgin birth is not taken into account, and the title of Son of God is understood in messianic terms). As we have seen, however, there is no inconsistency in Luke’s mind between the account of the virgin birth and the naming of Joseph as one of the parents of Jesus. From the legal point of view, Joseph was the earthly father of Jesus, and there was no other way of reckoning his descent. There is no evidence that the compilers of the genealogies thought otherwise.

2. J. Jeremias (Jerusalem, 213-221, 275-302) has claimed that genealogical records were kept in the time of Jesus by both priestly and lay families (especially the former), and that such genealogies were not artificial constructions even if errors can be detected in them. The evidence has been re-examined by Johnson who admits that there was a serious concern for purity of descent but contests whether lay families in particular always had genealogical records at their disposal; some records were transmitted orally, and some developed on the basis of midrashic exegesis of biblical texts. These suggestions indicate that we may expect to find symbolical material in the biblical genealogies, but that the attempt to dismiss them out of hand as unhistorical is in no way justified. There is thus a case for raising the question of the historical value of the genealogy of Jesus.

3. At the very outset, however, the possibility of a historical record seems unlikely. The genealogy in Lk. differs very extensively from that in Mt. 1:1-17. It is recorded in the opposite direction, beginning from Jesus and working backwards. It is considerably longer. Not only does it carry back the list beyond Abraham to Adam and then to God (giving a total of 78 names), but for the corresponding periods from Abraham to Jesus Luke has 57 names in comparison with only 41 in Mt. Finally, for the period from David to Jesus, the two lists are in almost total disagreement, coming together with certainty only in the names of Shealtiel and Zerubbabel, and even differing in the names given to Joseph’s father. It is not surprising that the scribe of D replaced the list of names in Lk. with that given by Matthew. There is in fact no wholly satisfactory method of bringing the two lists into harmony with each other.

a. The theory of Annius of Viterbo (AD 1490) was that Matthew gives the genealogy of Joseph and Luke gives that of Mary (cf. Hauck, 51-58). On this view, Eli (3:23) was really the father of Mary, and v. 23 must be interpreted to mean either that Joseph was the son-in-law of Eli, or that Jesus was supposedly the son of Joseph but in reality the grandson of Eli (Geldenhuys, 151f.). Neither of these interpretations of the verse is at all plausible, and the theory does not fit in with 1:27 where the Davidic descent of Joseph is stressed.

b. The older solution of Africanus (Eusebius, HE 1:7) utilised the ideas of adoptive and physical descent, and employed the device of levirate marriage to harmonise the two genealogies. According to information which he claimed to have received from the descendants of James, the brother of Jesus, Africanus stated that Matthan (Mt. 1:15) married a certain Estha, by whom he had a son, Jacob; when Matthan died, his widow married Malchi (Lk. 3:24) and had a son Eli (Lk. 3:23; note that Africanus did not apparently know of Levi and Matthat who come between Malchi and Eli in Luke’s list). The second of these two half-brothers, Eli, married, but died without issue; his half-brother Jacob took his wife in levirate marriage, so that his physical son, Joseph, was regarded as the legal son of Eli. Africanus admits that this theory is uncorroborated, but worthy of belief. It is not impossible (despite the criticisms made of it by G. Kuhn*, 225-228; E. L. Abel*, 203 n. 9), but it is improbable, especially if we accept the usual text of Lk.

c. The theory which has gained most support in modern times is that advanced by Lord A. Hervey* (cf. Machen, 202-209, 229-232; F. F. Bruce, NBD 458f.): Matthew gives the legal line of descent from David, stating who was the heir to the throne in each case, but Luke gives the actual descendants of David in the branch of the family to which Joseph belonged. The details of this theory vary in different authors. One method of harmonisation between the two lines of descent is to suppose that Jacob in Matthew’s list was childless, and that Joseph, the physical son of Eli in Luke’s list, was reckoned as his heir. Problems arise at the next stage backwards with regard to Matthat (Lk.) and Matthan (Mt.): were these one and the same person? (See Machen, 207-209, for a discussion of the different possibilities.) There are undoubted difficulties with this theory, but they may not be altogether incapable of solution. But solution depends upon conjecture, and there is no way of knowing whether the conjectures correspond to reality.

It is only right, therefore, to admit that the problem caused by the existence of the two genealogies is insoluble with the evidence presently at our disposal. To regard the lists, however, as merely literary constructions (M. P. Johnson*, 230; Schürmann, I, 200) is to go beyond the evidence.

4. Further problems arise within the Lucan genealogy itself.

a. G. Kuhn* noted that in 3:23-26 and 29-31 there are two roughly parallel lists of names:













































The close correspondence between the names in pairs 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 16, led Kuhn to conclude that the two lists were originally identical, and he suggested various emendations to make them correspond even more closely. He argued that the second list, which omits Ἰωσήφ in the second place, is the more original and gives a genealogy of Mary, the daughter of Ἠλί (or Ἐλιεζέρ). In the first list Joseph was inserted as the son-in-law of Mary’s father. The corresponding list of names in Mt. was preserved in Joseph’s family.

The effect of this analysis is to confirm that some historical material lies at the basis of Luke’s list, but it has been muddled in transmission. However, there are various objections to it. Several of the proposed equations are unconvincing. Moreover, the fact that on the usual view we have repetitions of the same names at different points in the list is not really a difficulty, since there are plenty of examples of repetition of the same or similar names in Jewish families. Further, there is nothing elsewhere to suggest that Mary was a descendant of David. Finally, if the text of Lk. known to Africanus is sound, Ματθάτ and Λευί should be omitted from v. 24, and this seriously disturbs the alleged parallelism (Jeremias, Jerusalem, 297 n. 98).

b. A more serious difficulty is raised by Jeremias (ibid. 296) who observes that the names of the patriarchs Joseph, Judah, Simon and Levi appear among the descendants of David; we have, however, no evidence that the names of the patriarchs were used in Israel as personal names until after the exile. Hence this part of Luke’s list is anachronistic. If, however, we can attach historical value to 1 Ch. 25:2 we have there the name ‘Joseph’ in the time of David, but most scholars would regard the names listed there as belonging to the Chronicler’s own time.

Consequently, we cannot be sure that the genealogy in Lk. is accurate in detail. Since, however, the Jews of the time made use of midrashic techniques in the formulation of genealogies, it may be that Luke has followed the practice of his time, and should be judged by that practice rather than by modern standards.

5. What, then, is the theological purpose of the genealogy? The way in which the corresponding list in Matthew is framed shows that it was designed to show that Jesus was the offspring of David and a fortiori of Abraham. He thus appears as the Davidic Messiah, and also as the heir of the promises made to Abraham. It may be assumed that similar reasoning underlies the genealogy in Lk., although he has not drawn attention to the significance of Abraham and David in so obvious a way.

That this is so is clear from the structure of the genealogy. If the present text of Lk. is to be trusted, there are 77 names in the list from Jesus to Adam. These fall into 11 groups of 7, namely (in reverse order):























When the names are grouped in this way, it will be observed that the significant names fall at the beginning or end of the groups. The arrangement can hardly be accidental. Luke, however, gives no hints of the presence of this arrangement.

Further, the fact that there are 11 groups suggests that the genealogy may reflect a division of world history into 11 ‘weeks’, to be followed by the 12th ‘week’ of the messianic era (cf. 4 Ez. 14:11; SB IV:2, 986f.; Rengstorf, 61). But it is clear that this scheme was not in Luke’s mind, since he presents the names in reverse order, and actually has 78 names (when that of God is included). It follows that Luke did not invent the genealogy, but took it over from a source (cf. Schürmann, I, 203; the possibility of a pre-Lucan significance is overlooked by Johnson, 231-233, when he rejects the idea).

We have, therefore, still to find the significance of the genealogy for Luke. Some have thought that the carrying back of the genealogy to God is a way of indicating that Jesus is the Son of God, so that the genealogy is anchored to 3:22 and 4:3, 9 (M. D. Johnson*, 235-239). But it is most unlikely that Luke thought of the divine sonship of Jesus in such a way. To regard all the names from Joseph to Adam as one gigantic parenthesis (B. Weiss, 301) misses the point of the genealogy, and to regard divine sonship as mediated to Jesus through his ancestors conflicts with the birth story. Hence the point of the genealogy is rather to show that Jesus has his place in the human race created by God. The fact that the genealogy is carried back to Adam, as the son of God, may perhaps point a contrast between this disobedient son of God and the obedient Son of God, Jesus. Hence the thought of Jesus as the Second Adam may be present (J. Weiss, 435; J. Jeremias, TDNT I, 141; Ellis, 93; the only real objection (out of those raised by M. D. Johnson*, 233-235) is that this thought does not play any part in Lucan theology elsewhere). At the same time, we may be sure that the carrying back of the genealogy to Adam is meant to stress the universal significance of Jesus for the whole of the human race, and not merely for the seed of Abraham.

An entirely different note is struck by Johnson, 240-252, when he comments on the way in which the lineage of Jesus passes through David’s son, Nathan, instead of through the royal line. He draws attention to the equating of this Nathan with the prophet Nathan in a number of sources, most of them late, and claims that the intention is to present Jesus as a prophetic figure, in line with Luke’s general emphasis on the prophetic function of Jesus (so, earlier, E. Nestle* and H. Sahlin*, 89). But while there is evidence that the offices of prophet and Messiah were being linked in the first century (E. L. Abel*), there is no evidence that Luke knew of this equation of Nathan, the son of David, with the prophet of the same name, and nothing in the context directs the reader’s eye to the significance of this particular name. Another possibility is that the genealogy deliberately bypasses the kingly line passing through Solomon to Jehoiakim, of whom it was prophesied that no descendant of his would sit on the throne of David (Je. 36:30; cf. 22:30; H. Sahlin*, 90f.). H. Sahlin*, 89, also suggests that the number of priestly names in the genealogy may indicate a desire to show that Jesus was a priestly Messiah.*

(23) When he began his ministry Jesus was the ‘right’ age for his work, just as he could lay claim to the ‘right’ descent. The opening καὶ αὐτόςἸησοῦς is probably meant as a solemn description: ‘And he, namely Jesus’; the αὐτός is unemphatic, indeed unnecessary (1:17 and note), but Luke uses it to draw attention to Jesus (Schürmann, Paschamahlbericht, 100). ἀρχόμενος refers to the beginning of Jesus’ ministry, a theme stressed by Luke (Acts 1:22; 10:37). The implication is that the ministry lasted for some time, certainly more than one year. The age of thirty (gen. of age) corresponds with that of David when he began to reign (2 Sa. 5:4; cf. Joseph, Gn. 41:46; the sons of Kohath, Nu. 4:3; Ezekiel, Ezk. 1:1), and hence may suggest that David is here seen as a type of Jesus. The use of ὡσεί (1:56 note; 9:14, 28; 22:41, 59; 23:44) suggests that in this case Luke is conscious of giving a round number. Zahn, 205f., took it as an exact number, and was thereby forced to give an impossible dating for the 15th year of Tiberius. Rabbinic tradition gave Jesus an age of 33-34 years (Sanh. 106b, in SB II, 155).

The phrase ὢν ὑιός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο (or ὤν, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, ὑιός A Θ pm lat; TR; Diglot) may mean that Luke was uncertain of the accuracy of the genealogy as a whole (Eusebius, QE 3:2; M. D. Johnson*, 230f.), or, more probably, that in reality Joseph was not the physical father of Jesus. ὡς ἐνομίζετο may have been added by Luke to his source in order to avoid possible misunderstanding in relation to chs. 1-2. νομίζω is Lucan (2:44*; Acts, 7x; rest of NT, 6x). H. Sahlin’s* suggestion (76f.) that the phrase is a later interpolation is unwarranted.

The omission of the article before Ἰωσήφ led Godet, I, 198-201, (cf. Geldenhuys, 153f.) to the view that the whole phrase ὡςἸωσήφ was a parenthesis, so that Jesus was presented as the son of Eli (understood as his maternal grandfather). In fact, however, the τοῦ is, in each occurrence in the genealogy, not the article with the following noun; it stands in apposition with the preceding noun, so that the structure is: ‘Jesus was the son … of Joseph (who was) the (son) of Eli (who was) the (son) of …’

Ἠλί is Hebrew ‘ēlı̂ (cf. 1 Sa. 1:3; 1 Ki. 2:27; et al.). The identification of the Miriam, daughter of Eli, in j. Hag. 2:77d, 50 (SB II, 155) with Mary, the mother of Jesus, so that Eli would be her father and the father-in-law of Joseph (cf. G. Kuhn*, 209 n.) is very conjectural, and is rejected by P. Billerbeck.

(24) Ματθάτ (3:29**) represents Hebrew mattāṯ. The name is similar to Ματταθά (3:31; 2 Esd. 10:33) and to Ματταθίας (3:25, 26). It also resembles Ματθάν (mattān; cf. 2 Ch. 23:17; Je. 45:1), which occupies the corresponding place in Matthew’s list as the name of Joseph’s grandfather (Mt. 1:15**); see the discussion above. It is not clear whether Λευί (3:29; 5:27, 29*; Hebrew lēwı̂) is an indeclinable form (BD 531) or a genitive form from Λευίς (BD 551c). This and the preceding name were omitted from the text of Luke known to Africanus (see above) and possibly also from Irenaeus, whose list contained only 72 names (AH 3:32:3); but the omission may have been due to the apparent dittography with v. 29 (Schürmann, I, 203 n. 119). Μελχί (malḵı̂, possibly an abbreviation for malḵiyyâ, G. Kuhn*, 211) also occurs at 3:28**. Ἰανναί** is found here only, and Ἰωσήφ recurs at 3:30.

(25) Ματταθίας (3:26**), i.e. mattiṯyâ, was a common name (2 Esd. 10:43; 18:4; 1 Ch. 9:31; 16:5; 1 Mac. 2:1, 14; et al.; Ep. Arist. 47; Jos., passim). Ἀμώς may represent ’āmôn, the name of the king (2 Ki. 21:18). ’āmôṣ, the father of Isaiah (2 Ki. 19:2) or ‘āmôs, the prophet. In Mt. 1:10 ** it is the name of the king. G. Kuhn’s* suggestion (211) that in Lk. the name is a corruption of Simeon (s̆im‘ôn) is unconvincing. For Ναούμ** (naḥûm) cf. Na. 1:1. Ἑσλί** is otherwise unattested; the nearest equivalent is aṣalyāhû (2 Ki. 22:3; Ἐσσελίας, LXX). For Ναγγαί** cf. Νάγαι (nōgah), 1 Ch. 3:7.

(26) Μαάθ is the equivalent of maḥaṯ (1 Ch. 6:35 (1Ch 6:20); 2 Ch. 29:12; 31:13); in view of this OT usage G. Kuhn’s conjecture that the word is a transliteration of mē’ēṯ, ‘from’, used to indicate a genealogical relationship, is unnecessary and unconvincing. For Ματταθίας, see 3:25. Σεμεΐν** is s̆im‘ı̂ (Ex. 6:17; et al.) or ema‘yâ (1 Ch. 5:4). Ἰωσήχ** is otherwise unattested. Ἰωδά** may equal yehûḏâ (1 Esd. 5:56 (58)) or yôyāḏā‘ (2 Esd. 22:10f.); the name is similar to Ἀβιούδ in Mt. 1:13 (hôḏaywāhû, 1 Ch. 3:24 LXXA, Ὠδουιά).

(27) Ἰωανάν** is at first sight equivalent to yôḥānān (BD 532; 2 Esd. 10:6; 2 Ch. 23:1; et al.). But the Hebrew name has the same meaning as ananyâ (Ἀνανιά, 1 Ch. 3:19), the divine name being used as prefix and suffix respectively (cf. 2 Ch. 21:7/22:1). The name could then be that of one of Zerubbabel’s sons. In between this name and Zerubbabel, however, stands Ῥησά**. This could be a proper name (riṣyā’, i.e. Ῥασειά, 1 Ch. 7:39; cf. SB II, 156), but, since no son of Zerubbabel with this name is otherwise known, many scholars argue that the word is a transcription of Aramaic rē’s̆â, ‘prince’, which originally stood in apposition to the name of Zerubbabel. If this conjecture is correct, then Luke was using at this point an originally Aramaic list which was not dependent on the LXX; it would also follow that the list was originally in reverse order, so that the title would follow the name of its bearer.

Ζοροβαβέλ (zerubbāḇel) also occurs in Mt. 1:12f.** as the name of the leader of the Jewish exiles on their return to Jerusalem. His father’s name is given here as Σαλαθιήλ (Mt. 1:12**; i.e. e’altı̂’ēl), in agreement with 1 Ch. 3:19 LXX; Ezr. 3:2; Ne. 12:1; Hg. 1:1. In 1 Ch. 3:19 MT, however, his father is called Pedaiah. Since Shealtiel and Pedaiah were brothers (1 Ch. 3:17f.), levirate marriage may well explain the anomaly (Machen, 206; cf. W. Rudolph, Chronikbucher, Tübingen, 1955, 29).

A further problem arises with Shealtiel’s father, named here as Νηρί** (i.e. nēr), but in the OT as Jeconiah, the king of Israel (1 Ch. 3:17; cf. Mt. 1:12). Taking Je. 22:30 to imply that Jeconiah was childless, Plummer, 104, argued that he adopted as his heir the son of Neri who was descended through Nathan from David. Other scholars follow Eusebius QE 3:2 (cited by M. D. Johnson*, 243f.) in claiming that because of the curse on Jeconiah the line of the Messiah was deliberately traced so as to by-pass him. Jeremias, Jerusalem, 295f., suggests that the author of Chronicles caused the discrepancy by attempting to depict the restorer of the temple after the exile as the grandson of the last reigning king. Any of these conjectures may be correct.

(28) The list now proceeds through a set of names unknown in the OT back to David via his son Nathan. G. Kuhn*, 214f., argues that the first few names are a corruption of the names in 1 Ch. 3:17f. (cf. Schürmann, I, 201 n. 95), but this is improbable, especially since it is unlikely that the genealogy was based on 1 Ch. (Zahn, 218; Jeremias, Jerusalem, 295).

For Μελχί see v. 24. Ἀδδί** (with several variant spellings) is found in the LXX for ‘iḏḏô (1 Ch. 6:21). Κωσάμ** is not attested in the LXX. For Ἐλμαδάμ** cf. Ἐλμωδάμ (Gn. 10:26 LXX for ’almōḏaḏ). Ἤρ** (‘ēr) is not uncommon (Gn. 38:3; 1 Ch. 2:3; 4:21).

(29) On the list of names commencing with Ἰησοῦς see the introductory comments on the theory that this is a parallel list to vs. 23ff.

Ἐλιεζέρ** corresponds to elı̂‘ezer (Gn. 15:2; Ex. 18:4). Ἰωρίμ** may be the same as Ἰωρείμ (2 Esd. 10:18). For Ματθάτ and Λευί see v. 24. See the introductory comments on the use of patriarchal names at this point.

(30) For Συμεών see 2:25, and for Ἰούδα see 1:39. For Ἰωνάμ** cf. Ἰωνάν (yehôḥānān, 1 Ch. 26:3), and for Ἐλιακίμ (Mt. 1:13**) see 2 Ki. 18:18; et al. (’elyāqı̂m).

(31) Μελεά** is otherwise unattested. The same is true of Μεννά** (but see SB II, 156, for a possible equivalent). It is omitted by A, and may be a dittography of the previous name (Schlatter, 218; Jeremias, Jerusalem, 296 n. 97), but omission would disturb the numerical scheme. For Ματταθά** (mattaṯâ) see 3:24 note. Ναθάμ** v. 1. Ναθάν, as in LXX) is nāṯān, a son of David (2 Sa. 5:14; 1 Ch. 3:5; 14:4; cf. Zc. 12:12. So the line reaches Δαυίδ (ḏāwiḏ), the king.

(32) From David to Abraham the genealogy is parallel to Mt. 1:2-6 with but slight differences. Matthew follows 1 Ch. 2:1-15, but Luke uses other sources, and possibly uses the MT rather than the LXX (G. Kuhn*, 217f.). See Ru. 4:18-22.

Ἰεσσαί is the same form as in LXX for yis̆ay (Mt. 1:5f.; Acts 13:22; Rom. 15:12**; Ru. 4:22; 1 Ch. 2:12f.). Ἰωβήδ (Mt. 1:5**, i.e. ‘ôḇēḏ) is a v. 1. in 1 Ch. 2:12, where the better text has Ὠβήδ. In Lk. the variants Ἰωβήλ, Ὠβήδ and Ὠβήλ are attested; confusion of final δ and λ would be easy. It is surprising that Mt. agrees with Lk. here against the LXX. Βόος** is bō‘az (Ru. 4:21; 1 Ch. 2:11f.); Mt. 1:5 has Βόες. Σαλά (3:35**) is for sìalmā’ / sìalmôn. This form of the name is used for the patriarch s̆elaḥ in Gn. 10:24; 11:13-15; 1 Ch. 1:18, 24; but for the present name the LXX has Σαλμάν (Ru. 4:20f.) or Σαλμών (1 Ch. 2:11; Mt. 1:4f.). Both of these forms appear as textual variants in Lk., but Σαλά has the best attestation. Metzger, 136, observes that it may be based on a Syriac tradition, since the corresponding form is found in Ru. 4:20f. syp. Ναασσών is naḥs̆ôn (Mt. 1:4**; Ex. 6:23; Nu. 1:7; Ru. 4:20; 1 Ch. 2:10f.).

(33) The text of the next three names is very uncertain, and UBS prints what Metzger, 136, can describe only as ‘the least unsatisfactory form of text’. Ἀμιναδάβ (‘ammı̂nāḏāḇ) is found in Mt. 1:4**; Ex. 6:23; Nu. 1:7; 1 Ch. 2:10; Ru. 4:19f. It is omitted by B sys; G. Kuhn*, 217 n. 2 and Jeremias, Jerusalem, 293, explain it as a scribal addition by someone who did not realise that the following name was an abbreviation for this one, but Kuhn’s suggestion that ‘ḏmyn and mynḏb were confused seems unlikely. The form, Ἀδμίν** is unattested in the LXX. Ἀρνί**, also unattested in the LXX, must correspond to Ἀράμ, i.e. rām (Mt. 1:3f.; 1 Ch. 2:9f.; Ἀρράν, Ru. 4:19). The variation in Lk. is due to textual corruption at some point. For Ἑσρώμ cf. Mt. 1:3**. The forms Ἑσρώμ and Ἑσρών for ḥeṣrôn are found in Ru. 4:18f.; 1 Ch. 2:5, 9. Φάρες, i.e. pereṣ, is found in Mt. 1:3**; Gn. 38:29; Ru. 4:18; 1 Ch. 2:4f. For Ἰούδα cf. v. 30; Mt. 1:2f.

(34-38) Ἰακώβ (ya‘aqōḇ), Ἰσαάκ (yiṣḥāq) and Ἀβραάμ (’aḇrāhām) complete the parallelism with Mt. 1:2. The rest of the genealogy has no parallel in Mt., and gives a list of names found in Gn. 11:10-26; cf. 5:1-32; 1 Ch. 1:1-26. Θάρα** (teraḥ), Ναχώρ** (nāḥôr), Σερούχ** (erûḡ), Ῥαγαύ** (re‘û), Φάλεκ** (peleḡ), Ἔβερ (‘ēber), Σαλά (3:32; s̆elaḥ), Καϊνάμ (3:37**), Ἀρφαξάδ** (’arpaḵsìāḏ) and Σήμ** (s̆ēm) are found in Gn. 11:10-26 (1 Ch. 1:17, 24-26) with the same spellings. The name Καϊνάμ is found only in the LXX, with no equivalent in the MT (it is omitted by p75 vid D); its presence shows that for this part of the genealogy Luke was using the LXX. The final set of names, Νώε (17:26f.; nōaḥ), Λάμεχ** (lemeḵ), Μαθουσαλά** (meṯûs̆elaḥ), Ἑνώχ (Heb. 11:5; Jude 1:14**; anôḵ), Ἰάρετ** (yereḏ), Μαλελεήλ** (maha lal’ēl), Καϊνάμ (3:36; qênān), Ἐνώς** (enôs̆), Σήθ** (s̆eṯ) and Ἀδάμ* (’āḏām) are derived from Gn. 5:1-32 (cf. 1 Ch. 1:1-4) with minor spelling differences; contrast Jos. Ant. 1:78f., where they are turned into declinable forms. On the significance of τοῦ θεοῦ (cf. Gn. 5:1) see introductory comments.

Source : Quinton Howitt